b. Post-conquest Indigenous Thought
The task of Felipe Guamбn Poma de Ayala (c.1550-1616), a indigenous Andean intellectual and artist, functions as a exceptional instance. Written around 1615 and addressed to King Philip III of Spain, Guamбn Poma’s the initial brand New Chronicle and Good Government is composed of almost 800 pages of text in Spanish combined with numerous Quechua expressions and almost 400 line drawings. Guamбn Poma skillfully combines neighborhood records, Spanish chronicles of conquest, Catholic ethical and philosophical discourses (including those of Bartolomй de las Casas), various eyewitness records (including their own), and dental reports in numerous native languages, to construct a strong instance for optimum Indian autonomy provided the ongoing reputation for punishment by Spanish conquerors, priests, and federal federal federal government officials. This along with other post-conquest indigenous texts affirm the ongoing presence of indigenous intellectual traditions, contest the colonial European knowledge of native individuals as barbarians, and challenge Eurocentric views of United states geography and history.
A new social hierarchy or caste system based on race was developed as part of European conquest and colonization. White Spanish colonists born in the Iberian Peninsula (peninsulares) held the greatest place, followed closely by white Spaniards created in the Indies (criollos), each of who were far above Indians (indios) and Africans (negros) when you look at the hierarchy. (more…)